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Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Edinburgh

Dear Enquirer to Exclusive Hypnotherapy, This is an article that Robin Thorburn ADHP (NC) MNRHP owner of Exclusive Hypnotherapy wrote for a city centre medical practice. I hope you find it informative as it contains up to date research on the benefits of Cognitive/Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy. “Cognitive-behavioural therapy is one of the most extensively researched forms of psychotherapy. Several clinical trials have pointed to CBT’s long term effectiveness and prevention of relapse”. Hollon, Thase & Markovitz

Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy/Cognitive Behaviour Therapy explained

Robin W. Thorburn ADHP (NC) MNRHP Clinical Psychotherapist and author of the e-book, Breaking The Vicious Circle of Psychological Misery which has received an excellent review from Dr Albert Ellis, founder of CBT/REBT (Exclusive Hypnotherapy Edinburgh)

6 April 2005: Study: Cognitive Therapy As Effective As Drug In Treating Depression…In a study of 240 patients, researchers found that Cognitive therapy, a type of treatment that teaches patients to think more realistically, worked as well as a popular antidepressant for moderate to severe depression…If people quit taking Paxil (Paroxitine) after four months, their relapse rate was twice that of therapy patients…it establishes I think once and for all that cognitive therapy does as well as pharmacotherapy, and what’s even more important is that it has a much lower relapse rate,” saidBeck. University of Pennsylvania.

In the mid 1950’s, the two therapies of Freudian Psychoanalysis and Behaviourism were fatally wounded by unscientific attitudes, procedural ineffectiveness and a failure to differentiate between a laboratory rat and a human being.

In 1955, Dr Albert Ellis, a New York Clinical Psychologist developed Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) and from this,Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) evolved through the work of Dr Aaron T. Beck, Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania school of Medicine and Director of The Center for Cognitive Therapy in Philadelphia.

Ellis was recently voted the second most influential Psychotherapist of last century by the American Psychological Association Members, first by the Canadian Psychological Association. REBT is based on the premise that people are not so much disturbed by events, but by our perception of them. “Tell me one thing about the past. I’ll prove it’s not what upset you. It’s how you philosophized about it that made you disturbed” Dr Ellis 19th August 2005.

Many therapies fail to acknowledge that we as human beings are born into the world with a natural feeling of insecurity and a biological tendency to think irrationally. Therefore, we are all a bit like a time bomb waiting to go off. If the wrong buttons are pushed, or continuously pushed, our frustration tolerance is lowered and the activation of excessive insecurity can be triggered.

We then keep ourselves anxious by fearing failure of any kind, then continuously overcompensating for the perceived failure with a demand that we must, should or ought to be loved and approved of; people must treat us well and the world must adhere to what we want. These dysfunctional core beliefs all have a tag on aspect to them which is very damaging i.e. …and if not it’s Awful!

With these beliefs, we have moved our thinking into the realms of the irrational as we will then experience inappropriate behaviour and emotions of anxiety, stress, anger, and depression which are self-defeating, destructive and over indulgent. If, on the other hand, we were to keep our thinking flexible, with preferences such as hoping and wishing, we would then be in a position to feel at worst, concerned, annoyed and disappointed then more able to be more tolerant towards ourselves and others and experience peace of mind.

” Most forms of human psychological disturbance are a form of demandingness “. Dr Albert Ellis.

REBT’s other philosophies are USA, unconditional self acceptance and UOA, unconditional other acceptance. This is not a flowery love-and-pamper-thyself attitude, but a common sense rational attitude of refusing to damn yourself, if for no other reason than you exist as a mistake-making human being. Remember we are all born into the world with a natural feeling of insecurity and a biological tendency to think irrationally. Trying to say that you are not is as bad as saying you are perfect and that is the essence of the problem. Trying to overcompensate for a perceived weakness! When you refrain from damning yourself and others, you metaphorically stop levelling a gun at your and others’ heads. You are then in a position to break the vicious circle of “if my thoughts, deeds and actions are good then I’m good, if my thoughts, deeds and actions are bad then I’m bad. Positive-negative dilemma!

During therapy sessions, self-monitoring and behavioural assignments are prescribed to encourage rational effective thinking. The client is very much the person who gets self better with the help of the therapist. The world is the laboratory, the client the scientist and the therapist the guide. You can feed a person for the day or teach him how to hunt for the rest their life.You take the cure with you wherever you go. You are back in control. “Given CBT’S, focus on modifying thinking and transferring skills learned in therapy to everyday life (i.e. making the patient his or her own therapist) treatment effects would be expected to persist following termination”. Beck 1995

Clients often request hypnotherapy rather than psychotherapy. Hypnotherapy for far too long has been mis-interpreted as some magical, mystical cure both by clients and therapists alike. After twelve years using it, I have found its effects to be excellent allied with REBT/CBT extremely effective long term. ” …at 15 months, CT was superior to both imipramine and relaxation” (Shear et al (1994)). The conscious mind has to learn what to do so that it can show the unconscious mind. If that were not the case, the very first time you went to drive a car your unconscious could do it for you!

Hypnotherapy is useful for getting the client to visualise themselves in the problematic situation and then applying the rational thinking such as “yes I dislike this situation, it’s a nuisance, a pain but it’s ONLY inconvenient and not awful” thereby experiencing effective behaviour. The client is then prepared for the future with a rational alternative for dealing with the situation and not paralysed with the demands which then lead to awfulness, stress, anxiety, anger, depression and spurious “what ifs” and hesitancy. “Most anxious patients have visual images of danger before and during their anxiety”.Beck, Anxiety Disorders and Phobias

Throughout the sessions, Cognitive Therapy can be introduced at appropriate times. CBT is very much a case of looking for the evidence to validate the beliefs. My favourite way of disputing negative automatic thinking is asking, “If I took what I am thinking to a court of law, would it be accepted or thrown out by it?” Then more accurate validating can then take place. REBT/CBT are very educational and interesting to learn to use. Flexing the rational muscle can be fun, a bit like physiotherapy for the brain. In short, they are common sense approaches which are low on psycho-babble, plus THEY WORK LONG TERM! ”

The public remains largely unaware of the research supporting the efficacy of CT or other talking cures. But numerous studies show cognitive therapy is as effective as medication at treating depression, and often better than drugs for conditions like anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Washington Post September 3 2002

They can be used to treat;

Thanks to Professor Aaron Beck, Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Director of The Center of Cognitive Therapy in Philadelphia and Dr Albert Ellis former President Emeritus of The Albert Ellis Institute in New York for supplying information contained in this article.

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